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6 sigma讲解
发布时间:2011.02.15 新闻来源:www.discspringsource.cn 浏览次数:
- Why my company should go for SIX SIGMA ?
A Beginning Definition of Six Sigma
Companies exist to be profitable. Profitable companies provide jobs and pay taxes that benefit the community, state, and country where they make their products or provide their services. Making a profit is based on having customers who want your product or service. Wanting your product or service is just the beginning. Every customer has requirements regarding the product or service.
meeting their requirements, you are being effective. If their requirements are not being met you are being ineffective. If you are ineffective and do nothing about it, soon you will be out of business.
Effectiveness through meeting (and preferably exceeding) requirements is only half the battle. However, focusing merely on customer effectiveness would eventually mean they could go out of business. Why? Because to be a profitable business, an organization must also be efficient. Efficiency relates to the amount of resources consumed in being effective. Efficiency can be measured in time,cost, labor, or value. Since businesses exist to make a profit, being focused on the customer without also being focused on efficiency will not be a good business decision.
Six Sigma, at its basic level, is attempting to improve both effectiveness and efficiency at the same time.
A technical measure of how many unhappy customer experiences per million opportunities is the concept behind Six Sigma. For example, if on any day McDonald’s served one million customers,how many of them had a bad or unsatisfying experience like poor food quality, wrong food order etc. If only three (yes, three) customers were unhappy with their experience, then McDonald’s achieved Six Sigma on that day. This is because Six Sigma is equivalent to only 3.4 bad customer experiences for every million opportunities.
If 233 bad customer experiences occurred per million McDonald’s customers then McDonald’s would be a Five Sigma company. If 6,210 customers had experienced soggy french fries or an inaccurate order then McDonald’s would be a Four Sigma company. If 66,807 McDonald’s customers opened their lunch bag and found a Big Mac when they had ordered a Quarter Pounder, McDonald’s would be a Three Sigma company.
如果每一百万顾客中有233个对服务不满意,麦当劳就是5σ公司。如果有6,210个顾客吃了浸了水的干炸薯条或吃到上错得饭菜,麦当劳就是4σ公司。如果有66,807个顾客要了Quarter Pounder,但是打开他们的午餐袋却发现Big Mac,麦当劳就是3σ公司。
Six Sigma is a measure of customer satisfaction that is near perfection. Most companies are at the two to three sigma level of performance–that means between 308,538 and 66,807 customer dissatisfaction occurrences per million customer contacts.
Six Sigma was started in the mid-1980s. Here was a quality initiative that had a significant role for management in its implementation. Started at Motorola but popularized in the 1990s by AlliedSignal and General Electric, Six Sigma was different than previous approaches to quality improvement.
6σ始于1980年中期,其动机是提高质量,在实施过程中,充当十分重要的管理角色。它最初见于Motorola公司,但在1990年后由AlliedSignal 和 General Electric公司推广。6σ不同于先前的质量改善方法。
Companies that have a two to three sigma level of performance experience business problems. They don’t make as much money as they should for their shareholders. Shareholders get mad and begin to take their money elsewhere. Management wants to increase profitability. They fear for their jobs and want to improve the "bottom line." Often, they think too much in the short term and begin to lay off employees. In the short term, the bottom line looks improved. Of course, the emphasis here is on the short term. With less people in the organization, there is more work for those who remain.
What management forgets by "downsizing" is that if they run a business that is neither effective nor efficient, things will only get worse with less people expected to work harder. Ultimately, businesses that operate by focusing on short-term profitability will result in long-term unprofitability.
In many companies, management believes that downsizing is a way to improve profitability. Since the 1980s, there have been attempts to change that approach. During the 1980s, some management improved profitability through downsizing. For example, the early 1980s showed an interest in Japanese manufacturing techniques. Some U.S. manufacturers mimicked these techniques. The early 1980s were marked by efforts like Statistical Process Control or Just in Time Manufacturing. While well intentioned, many of these efforts were ill fated from the beginning.
Management attempted to use these efforts in the same way they used downsizing. That is, they attempted to use them as cost savings measures. The workforce saw these efforts for what they were, attempts to get more work out of less workers. This was particularly the case when these quality efforts were combined with downsizing. In addition, management only attempted to implement these initiatives as programs.What this meant was that the focus was almost exclusively on the tactics of improvement at the worker level with virtually no work done by management itself. For a company to truly become effective and efficient, it was necessary for a quality initiative to have a focus on changing how executives managed their business.
Six Sigma was started in the mid-1980s. Here was a quality initiative that had a significant role for management in its implementation. Started at Motorola but popularized in the 1990s by AlliedSignal and General Electric, Six Sigma was different than previous approaches to quality improvement.
6σ始于20世纪八十年代中期,其动机是提高质量,在实施过程中,充当十分重要的管理角色。它最初见于Motorola公司,但在1990年后由AlliedSignal 和 General Electric公司推广。6σ不同于先前的质量改善方法。
With other quality approaches, management played little if any role other than approval of bringing in external consultants to train the workforce. With Six Sigma, the work begins with management. First, executives create the Process Management system. Before work is done that affects the average worker, management has already spent several months working on identifying and measuring the processes of their organization.
A process is defined as the series of steps and activities that take inputs provided by suppliers, add value and provide outputs for their customers. Six Sigma as a management philosophy instructs management to begin identifying the 20 or 30 most important processes in their business. Next management measures the current sigma performance of each of these processes.Many, if not all, of the processes will be operating at two to three sigma performance. Some processes may even be lower than two sigma. Once management has identified their processes and personally been involved in measurement of their current performance, they then identify the lowest performing processes that have the most direct impact on the company’s business objectives.
Business objectives are the five to seven most important goals a company establishes each year. Sometimes they are financially stated (like profits) but there are others like customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction.
Once the processes having the worst performance with the greatest impact to the business objectives are identified, project teams are formed. That’s where the individual worker comes in. They will become part of a five to seven person team that will have the responsibility of improving the performance of the worst performing processes. These teams usually exist for four to six months. They are taught a series of tools and concepts (that we will cover in later emails) to help them use their skills to improve sigma performance to achieve greater effectiveness and efficiency.
The History of Six Sigma
Motorola is where Six Sigma began. A highly skilled, confident,and trained engineer who knew statistics, Mikel Harry began to study the variations in the various processes within Motorola. He soon began to see that too much variation in any process resulted in poor customer satisfaction and ineffectiveness in meeting the customer requirements. While the concept of variation can be expressed statistically, it doesn’t have to be complicated.
摩托罗拉是6σ诞生地。Mikel Harry,一个技术熟练的,充满自信的,受过良好教育的,知道统计技术的工程师,开始研究摩托罗拉各个工艺过程中的变化。很快,他发现生产过程中太多变化导致顾客满意度低,工作效率低难以满足顾客的要求。若这些变化用统计技术表示,就不难理解。
"Customers feel variation, not averages." Mikel Harry recognized the importance of measuring variations in the various processes of Motorola. However, unlike other quality efforts that spent most time on measurement, Harry and others at Motorola acted on what processes produced the most variation. They applied a complete set of tools to reduce and control the variation in the poorly performing processes and greatly improved the effectiveness and efficiency of those processes.
“顾客看到变化,看不到一般”。Mikel Harry认识到测定摩托罗拉工艺过程变化的重要性。但是,不像其他得质量方法,大部分时间花在测量上,Harry和同时测定什么过程产生变化。他们应用一整套工具减少和控制效果差的过程,大大改善了这些过程的效果和效率。
Less than two years after the initial application of Six Sigma,General Electric had generated over $320 million in cost savings. By 1998, it had generated three quarters of a billion dollars in cost savings and anticipated over a billion dollars of cost savings by 1999.
6σ启用1年多后,通用电气公司节约成本超过320美元。到1998年,通用电气公司节约成本超过750,000,000美元; 到1999年,通用电气公司节约成本有望超过1,000,000,000美元。
What Can Six Sigma Do for Your Company and You?
First, successful implementation of Six Sigma will result in improved effectiveness and efficiency in the first "wave" of projects in the first six to nine months of implementation. Of the 20 to 30 processes in an organization, usually 7 to 10 will be part of the first implementation efforts. Of those 7 to 10 projects, 4 to 7 will probably be successful. These first projects will help generate increased enthusiasm and momentum for future Six Sigma activity within your company.
In later months and years of Six Sigma implementation, you will notice other changes as well. First, while your reporting relationship within the organization may not change, you will be introduced to a group known as process owners. Process Owners are responsible for the management of processes within the organization. While the organization chart doesn’t change, process owners take on informal responsibilities for the management of crossfunctional, inter-departmental processes. These process owners may sponsor a team that is responsible for improving effectiveness and efficiency. These team sponsors are called project champions.
Your company is pursuing Six Sigma to change the way it does business. To their credit, your management team is trying to change the way it manages. They probably recognize the folly of previous attempts to increase profitability through downsizing. They believe that greater effectiveness and efficiency will bring improved profitability. Improved profitability means business growth. Growth means more jobs, not less. Increased growth can mean increased stock price that will benefit the executives and those who report to them as well as all other stakeholders.
Greater effectiveness and efficiency will mean a lot to you.First, it will mean greater job security. Second, it will mean learning new skills. These new skills will mean greater opportunities such as promotions in your current company. You may decide to take your new skills and market them to other companies. Even if you stay in your current job, you will find these new skills helpful. You will find using the tools of Six Sigma makes your job easier to do. Plus, working in processes that are effective and efficient means less stress and greater job enjoyment.
Summary of Part 1,2 and 3
Six Sigma is a popular management philosophy that is sweeping the globe. Its goal is to make an organization more effective and efficient. Effectiveness is the degree to which an organization meets and exceeds the needs and requirements of its customers. Efficiency is the resources consumed in achieving effectiveness.
Six Sigma is equivalent to no more than 3.4 bad customer experiences for every million customer opportunities. Most organizations operate at between Two to Three Sigma performance, which at best is nearly 70,000 bad customer experiences per million customer opportunities. Six Sigma originated in the 1980s at Motorola. In the early 1990s, it migrated to AlliedSignal and in the mid-1990s, General Electric adopted it as their premier management philosophy.
Unlike other quality initiatives that focused just on tools, Six Sigma is based on the active involvement it generates from management. Results from Six Sigma have not been paralleled by any other quality initiative.
6σ等于每1.000,000顾客由3.4个不满意。大多数公司在2-3σ运作,也就是每1.000,000顾客约有7000个不满意。6σ由摩托罗拉在19世纪80年代初创,在19世纪90年代早期,迁移到AlliedSignal,在19世纪90年代中期,General Electric 将它作为基本的管理论。
The Tactics of SIX SIGMA
The tactics of Six Sigma are very much like the scientific method learned in elementary school. The scientific method is based on defining a problem, measuring the impact of the problem, determining root causes, and forming and testing hypotheses.
The tactics of Six Sigma are made up of five steps: Define,Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. The five steps of tactical Six Sigma are sometimes known by their initials DMAIC.
Each step in DMAIC has a series of substeps known as tollgates.
A. The tollgates of Define include creating the team’s charter,identifying the customers of the process,
their needs and requirements, and creating a high-level map of the process.
B. The tollgates of Measure include creation of the data collection plan and implementing that plan.
C. The tollgates of Analysis include analyzing the data, analyzing the process, and analyzing the root causes for
current sigma performance.
D. The tollgates of Improve include generating and selecting solutions.
E. The Control tollgates include choosing and implementing a form of technical control over the new process
and creating a Response Plan.
The Define Tollgates
The Charter is the collection of documents that provide purpose and motivation for a Six Sigma team to do its work. It includes: The business case, The problem statement, Project scope, Goals and objectives, Milestones, Roles and responsibilities of the project team (Champion,Black Belt, Green Belt).
The Measure Tollgates
Creation of the Data Collection Plan :-
The data collection plan has following columns. Each column has an important role in helping the team calculate the last column, baseline sigma.
1. What to measure:
2. The type of measure:
3. The type of data:
4. Operational definitions:
5. Targets/specifications:
6. Data collection forms:
7. Sampling:

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